Medication and breastfeeding: an explanatory list for mothers and professionals

This list, containing about 750 medicament’s, is specifically developed for mothers and professionals. If you are in need of a ‘usually safe’ or ‘not safe’ medicine, check with your doctor and show him the list for professionals.

Paediatrician Erica Post compiled this list [third version], based on the latest book of Thomas Hale [2008] and the latest recommendations of the American Academy of Paediatrics [2001]. This third update and translation was facilitated by the Kenniscentrum Borstvoeding with the help of Stefan Kleintjes, dietician, in September 2008 and June 2009.


Look here for the pdf of this medication and breastfeeding – explanatory list. Useful if you want to make a print!


Explanation for users

The medicaments in this list are ordered alphabetically and we have used the therapeutic moiety of the medication as it’s name. For example Valium is named Diazepam. Valium is a brand name for Diazepam.
Furthermore, the list contains, apart form the name of the medication and its function, the advice of Thomas Hale [L1 – L5] and the advice of the AAP. The information in the fifth column is used for attentions, not listed in the other columns, but things to remember. For example, antibiotics can cause Candida-infection.

The advices of Dr. Thomas Hale, pharmacologist

boek_hale2010.jpgThomas Hale’s advices are listed in the third column. Hale updates his advices every two years [last update 2008]. His advices are based on all known pharmokinetic aspects important for breastfeeding mothers and their baby’s. Hale’s information is also based on the most recent published scientific articles. Based on this information he determines the lactation risk category.

Thomas Hale lactation risk categories:

  • L1 Safest
  • Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote; or the product is not orally bio-available in an infant.

  • L2 Safe
  • Drug which has been studied in a limited number of breastfeeding women without an increase in adverse effects in the infant. And/or the evidence of a demonstrated risk which is likely to follow use of this medication in a breastfeeding woman is remote.

  • L3 Moderately safe
  • There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however, the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant. New medications that have absolutely no published data are automatically categorized in this category, regardless of how safe they may be.

  • L4 Possibly hazardous
  • There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breast milk production, but the benefits from use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant, e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective.

  • L5 Contraindicated
  • Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medicament that has a high risk of causing damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly overweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.

The advices of the American Association of Paediatrics [AAP]

The American Association of Paediatrics [AAP] also gives advice about medication and breastfeeding. Their information has a different categorizing and they have less information than Thomas Hale. When Hale and the AAP do not agree, Hale is usually stricter. For example, when medication has a bad influence on the quantity of milk, Hale lists this as negative while the AAP doesn’t. The advices of the AAP are listed in the fourth column.

Lactation risk categories by AAP


  • Compatible: can be combined with breastfeeding.
  • \t

  • Caution: can be combined with breastfeeding under certain circumstances.
  • \t

  • Cessation: can not be combined with breastfeeding.



Acamprosate Anti alcoholism L3
Acarbose Anti diabetes L3 ?
Acebutolol Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension] Compatible
Acetaminophen [paracetamol] Analgesic L1 Compatible
Acetazolamide Diuretic L2 Compatible
Acetohexamide Anti diabetes L3 [observe for hypoglycemia] ?
Aciclovir Anti viral L2 Compatible
Acitretin Anti psoriatic L5 Compatible Low in mothers milk but probably very toxic to a growing child
Adalimumab Anti reumatic L3 ?
Adefovir Anti hepatitis L4 ?
Albendazole Anti worms L3 ?
Albuterol Bronchodilatation L1 ?
Alemtuzumab Anti leukemic L3-L4 ?
Alfentanil Narcotic Analgesic L2 ?
Allergy injections Desensibilisation L1 ?
Allopurinol Anti gout L2 Compatible
Almotriptan Anti migraine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Alprazolam Anti anxiety L3 Concern?
Alteplase Thrombolytic L3 [Short T 1/2=45minutes] ?
Amantadine Anti viral L3 [reduces prolactin] ?
Amikacine Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Aminosalicylacid Anti tubercular L3 [diarrhea?] Caution
Amiodarone Anti arrhythmic L5 [M/P=5-13! hypothyroidy?] Concern?
Amitriptyline Anti depressant L2 Concern?
Amlodipine Besylate Anti hypertensive L3 [bradycardia? hypotension?] ?
Amoxicilline (with Clavulanate) Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Amphetamin Amfetamine L5 [agitation convulsions] Cessation
Amphotericine B Anti fungal L3 [none reported via milk; absorption unlikely] ?
Ampicilline Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Anthrax vaccine Vaccination L3 ?
Antipyrine Analgesic L5 ?
Ascorbic acid Vitamin L1 ?
Aspartame Sweetener L1[L5 for child with PKU] ?
Aspirin Analgesic L3 [Reye syndrome?] Caution
Atenolol Anti hypertensive L3 [bradycardia, hypotension?] Caution
Atomoxetine Anti ADHD L4 [none reported via milk, insomnia? Irritable?] ?
Atorvastatine calcium Reduces cholesterol L3 [cholesterol is important!] ? Better not to use during breast feeding
Atropine Anti cholinergic L3 ?
Azapropazone Analgesic L2 Compatible
Azathioprine Immuno-suppressant L3 [bone marrow suppressive!] ?
Azelastine Anti histamine L3 [bitter taste, drinks less?] ?
Azithromycine Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Aztreonam Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Baclofen Muscle relaxant L2 Compatible
Barium Contrast substance L1 ?
Beclomethason Steroid L2 ?
Benazepril Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension] ?
Bendro flumethiazide Diuretic L4 [reduces lactation!] Compatible
Benzonatate Anti cough L3 [little known] ?
Bepridil Anti hypertensive L4 [long T 1/2 and high oral availability] ?
Betamethason Steroid L3 [none reported] ?
Betaxolol Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension?] ?
Bethanechol chloride Cholinergic L4 [diarrhea, GI symptoms] ?
Bisacodyl Laxative L2 ?
Bisoprolol Antihypertensive L3 [hypotension? hypoglycemic?] ?
BMR vaccine Vaccine L2 [light rash?] ?
Bromides Sedative L5 [sedative] Compatible
Bromocriptine Prolactin suppression [no longer used because of side effects by the mother] L5 [reduces milk production] Caution
Brompheniramine Anti histamine L3 [insomnia, irritable] ?
Budesonide Steroid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Bumetanide Diuretic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Bupivacaine Local anesthetic L2 ?
Bupropion Anti depressive, helps to stop smoking L3 [reduces milk production?] Concern?
Buspirone Antianxiety L3 ?
Busulfan Cytostatic L5 [cytotolytic] ?
Butabarbital Sedative L3 [sedative] ?
Butalbital Sedative, Analgesic L3 [sedative] ?
Butorphanol Narcotic L3 [Sedative] Compatible
Cabergoline Anti prolactin L4 [reduces milk production!] ?
Cafeine Stimulant L2 [sometimes irritable and insomnia] Compatible
Calcitonin Calcium metabolism L3 [reduces milk production?] ?
Cannabis Hallucinogen L5 [sedation, long T 1/2] Cessation
Captopril Anti hypertensive L2 [hypotension?] Compatible
Carbamazepine Anti convulsant L2 Compatible
Carbamide peroxide Anti bacterial, Whitening agent L1 ?
Carbenicilline Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Carbidopa Dopamine antagonist L3 ?
Carbimazol Thyroid inhibitor L3 [but PTU is preferred] Compatible
Carisoprodol Muscle relaxant L3 [Sedation?] ?
Carteolol Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension? hypoglycemia? lethargy?] ?
Carvedilol Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension? hypoglycemia?] ?
Cefaclor Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Cefadroxil Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Cefazolin Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Cefdinir Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Cefditoren Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk ] ? Candida?
Cefepime Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Cefixime Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cefoperazon Sodium Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cefotaxim Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] Compatible Candida?
Cefotetan Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cefoxitin Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Cefpodoxim proxetil Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cefprozil Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Ceftazidime Antibiotic L1 [diarrhea?] Compatible Candida?
Ceftibuten Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Ceftriaxon Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea? oral – difficult to attain] Compatible Candida?
Cefuroxim Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Celecoxib NSAID L2 ?
Cephalexin Antibiotic L1 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cephalothin Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cephapirin Antibiotic L1 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cephradin Antibiotic L1 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Cerivastatin Anti cholinergic, lowers cholesterol L3 [cholesterol is important!] ? Better not use during breast feeding
Cetirizine Anti histamine L2 [sedative?] ?
Chickenpox vaccine Vaccine [living] L4 [only in emergency situations] ?
Chloralhydrate Sedative L3 [sedative?] Compatible
Chlorambucil Cytostatic L5 [cytotoxic] ?
Chloramphenicol Antibiotic L4 [sensibilisation?] Concern? Candida?
Chlordiazepoxide Benzodiazepine L3 [sedative?] ?
Chlorhexidine Anti microbal L4 [when sprayed on the nipple bradycardia] ?
Chloroquine Anti malarial L3 [diarrhea? hypotension?] Compatible
Chlorothiazide Diuretic L3 [reduces milk production?] Compatible
Chlorpheniramine Anti histaminie L3 [sedative?] ?
Chlorpromazine Tranquillizer L3 [sedative] Concern?
Chlorpropamide Anti diabetic L3 [hypoglycemia?] Concern?
Chlorprothixeen Tranquillizer L3 [sedative?] Concern?
Chlorthalidon Diuretic L3 [reduces milk production?] Compatible
Cholestyramine Cholesterol binder L1 [oral availability 0 %] ?
Chorionic Gonadotropin Placental hormone L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Cimetidine Reduces gastric acid L2 Compatible
Ciprofloxacin Antibiotic L3 [diarrhea, changes color of teeth!] Compatible Candida?
Cisapride Stimulates stomach and bowels[seldom used] L2 ? Rhythm deregulator?
Cytostatic L4 [cytotoxic, M/P more as 1] Compatible
Citalopram Anti depressive L3 [sedative] ?
Clarithromycine Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Clemastine Anti histamine L4 [sedative, irritable, convulsions] Concern?
Clindamycine Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] Compatible Candida?
Clobazam Benzodiazepine L3 [sedative?] ?
Clomifeen Ovulation stimulation L3 [reduces early milk production] ?
Clomipramine Anti depressive L2 Concern?
Clonazepam Benzodiazepine L3 [sedative?] ?
Clonidine Anti hypertensive L3 [hypotension? reduces milk production?] ?
Clorazepate Benzodiazepine L3 [sedative, constipation] ?
Clotrimazol Anti fungus L1 ?
Cloxacilline Antibiotic L2 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Clozapine Sedative L3 Concern?
Cocaine Stimulant L5 [choking, vomiting, diarrhea, irritation, hypertension, tachycardia, dangerous] Cessation
Codeine Analgesic L4 [sedative?] Concern
Coenzym Q10 Co-factor L3 ?
Colchicine Analgesic for gout L4 [somewhat unknown, bone marrow depression?]
Colesevelam Reduces cholesterol L1 [oral availability 0%] ?
Corticotropine Stimulates cortisol release L3 ?
Coumarin derivates Anti coagulant L2 Compatible
Cromolyn Sodium Anti allergy L1 ?
Cyclizine Anti histamine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Cyclobensaprine Muscle relaxant L3 [none reported via milk, sedation?] ?
Cyclopentolate Dilates pupils L3
Cyclo-phosphamide Cytostatic L5 [bone marrow suppressant] Caution
Cycloserine Anti tuberculosis L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Cyclosporine Immune Suppression L3 [cytotoxic?] Caution
Cyproheptadine Anti histamine L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Cytarabine Cytostatic L5 [cytotoxic] ?
Dactinomycine Cytostatic L5 [cytotoxic] ?
Dalteparine Anticoagulant L2 ?
Danazol Androgen L5 [reduces milk production? none reported via milk] ?
Dantrolene Muscle relaxant L4 [none reported via milk] ?
Dapsone Antibiotic L4 [hemolytic anemia?] Compatible Candida?
Daptomycine Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk and adverse effects unlikely] ? Candida?
DEET Insect repellant L3 Avoid use on large areas ?
Deferoxamine Iron binder L3 [none reported via milk and adverse effects unlikely] ?
Desipramine Anti depressant L2 Concern?
Desloratadine Anti histaminic L2 ?
Desmopressine Anti diuretic hormone L2 ?
Dexamethasone Steroid L3 [avoid high doses] ?
Dexfenfluramine Diet pill L4 [none reported via milk] ?
Dextro amphetamine CNS Stimulant L3 [none reported via milk but caution] Caution, cessation
Dextro methorphan Anti cough syrup L1 ?
Diazepam Sedative L3[L4 chronic use] lethargic or sedation Concern?
Dibucaine Local anesthetic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Diclofenac NSAID L2 ?
Dicloxacilline Antibiotic L1 ?
Dicyclomine Anti cholinergic L4 [apnea, constipation, tachycardia] ?
Diethylpropion Effects hunger feeling [amphetamine] L5 [possibly less thirst, agitation effectssleeping pattern] ?
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Estrogen L5 ?
Diflunisal NSAID L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Digitoxine Heart stimulant L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Digoxine Cardiac stimulant L2 Compatible
Dimenhydrinate Anti motion sickness L2 ?
Diphenhydramine Anti histamine L2 [none reported via milk possible sedation?] ?
Diphenoxylate Anti diarrhea L3 [possible constipation? Sedative?] ?
Dipivefrine Anti glaucoma L2 ?
Dipyridamol Opens veins, anti coagulant L3 [none reported via milk, seems no point] ?
Dirithromycine Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] ? Candida?
Disopyramide Anti arrhythmic L2 Compatible
Disulfiram Inhibitor of alcohol metabolism L5 [dangerous in combination with alcohol] ?
Dolasetron Mesylate Anti nausea L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Domperidon Stimulates stomach activity [and milk production] L1 Compatible
Dopamine Adrenergic stimulant L2 [no absorption] ?
Dothiepin Anti depressive L2 Concern?
Doxazosin Mesylate Anti hypertension L4 [M/P=20!] ?
Doxepin Anti depressive L5[sedative, bad drinking, hypotonic, spitting, jaundice] Concern?
Doxercalciferol Vitamin D L3 [hyper calcemie?] ?
Doxorubicine Cytostatic L5 Cessation
Doxycycline Antibiotic L3 [L4 in chronic use, teeth color changes and lessens bone growth?] ? Candida?
Doxylamine Anti histamine L4 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Droperidol Anti nausea L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Echinacea Immune stimulant L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Eculisumab Monoclonal antibody L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Efalisumab Monoclonal antibody L3 [no data available] ?
Eletriptan Anti migraine L2 ?
Enalapril Anti hypertension L2 Compatible
Encainide Anti arrhythmic L3 [extreme caution] ?
Enoxacin Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk, caution, see Norfloxacin] ? Candida?
Enoxaparin Anti coagulant L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Ephedrine Stimulant L4 [none reported via milk but observe for agitation etc] ?
Epinephrine Stimulant L1 ?
Epoprostenol Vasodilator L3 [none reported via milk, unlikely to be absorbed] ?
Ergonovine Maleate Anti postpartum bleeding L3 [reduces prolactin?] ?
Ergotamine Anti migraine L4 [reduces milk production by chronic use, nausea?] Caution
Erythromycine Antibiotic L2
L3 early postnatal [pylorus-stenosis!]
Escitalopram Anti depressant L2 ?
Esmolol Beta Blocker L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Esomeprasol Antacid L2 ?
Estazolam Benzodiazepine L3 [none reported via milk, sedation?] ?
Eszopiclone Hypnotic L3 [none reported via milk, sedation?]
Ethambutol Anti tubercular L2 Compatible
Ethanol Alcohol L3 [sedative, irritable, bad drinking, reduces milk production, taste] Compatible
Ethosuximide Anti convulsant L4 [sedative, bad drinking, irritable] Compatible
Ethotoin Anti convulsant L3 [none reported via milk but see Phenytoin ?
Etretinate Anti psoriatic L5 [early closing of the fontanel and epiphyses] ?
Ezetimibe Reduces cholesterol L3 [no data available, cholesterol is important!] ? Better not to use during breast feeding
Famciclovir Anti viral L2 ?
Famotidine Antacid L1 ?
Felbamate Anti convulsive L4 [none reported via milk, serious side effects?] ?
Felodipine Anti-hypertensive L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Fennel [in high concentrations or etheric oil] Estrogenic? L4 [reduces milk production]
Fenoprofen NSAID L2 ?
Fentanyl Opium L2 Compatible
Fexofenadine Anti histamine L2 Compatible
Filgastim Increases blood amount L2 ?
Flavoxate Urine spasmolytic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Flecainide Acetate Anti arrhythmic L3 [nausea?, dizziness, constipation?] Compatible
Floxacilline Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Fluconazol Anti fungal L2 Compatible
Fludrocortison Steroid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Flunarizine Anti hypertension L4 [none reported via milk accumulation?] ?
Flunitrazepam Benzodiazepine L3[L4 by chronic use, sedative?] ?
Fluorescein Diagnostic dye L3 [do not use with light therapy because of possible light toxic] Compatible
Fluoride Enamel hardener L2 Compatible
Fluorouracil Cyto static L5 ?
Fluoxetine Anti depressive L2 older child
L3 neonate [crying, cramps, reported once]
Fluphenazine Psychotherapy L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Flurazepam Sedative L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Flurbiprofen Analgesic L2 ?
Fluticason Steroid L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Fluvastatin Reduces cholesterol L3 [none reported via milk but cholesterol is necessary] ?
Fluvoxamine Anti depressive L2 Concern?
Folic acid Vitamin L1 Compatible
Formoterol Fumarate Bronchodilatation L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Foscarnet Anti viral L4 [kidney toxic? deposits in teeth and bones?] ?
Fosinopril Anti hypertension L3 older child
L4 neonate
Fosphenytoine Anti convulsive L2 Compatible
Furazolidon Antibiotic L2 older child
L4 neonate [hemolytic anemia]
? Candida?
Furosemide Diuretic L3 [reduces milk production?] ?
Fytomenadion Vitamin K1 L1 Compatible
Gabapentin Anti convulsive L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Gadodiamide Contrast bij MRI’s L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Gadopentetate Contrast for MRI’s L2 Compatible
Gadoteridol Contrast for MRI’s L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Gallium-67 Citrate Radioactive isotope L4 [radio active! no breast feeding for 14 days!] Temporary stop breast feeding
Gentamicine Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Gentian violet Anti fungal L3 [avoid high doses and long usage] ?
Glimepiride Reduces sugar level L4 [none reported via milk, hypoglycemia] ?
Glipizide Reduces sugar level L3 [milk levels undetectable] ?
Glucosamine Anti arthritis L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely]
Glyburide Reduces sugar level L2 ?
Gold Anti rheumatic L5 [remains in the body very long, months!] Compatible
Grepafloxacin Antibiotic L4 [diarrhea? arthropathy?] ?
Griseofulvine Anti fungal L2 ?
Halazepam anti anxiety L3 ?
Haloperidol Anti psychotic L2 Concern?
Halothaan Anesthetic L2 Compatible
Heparine Anti coagulant L1 ?
Hepatitis vaccine Vaccine L2 ?
Heroine Narcotic L5 [sedative, tremor, restless, bad drinking] Cessation
Hexa chlorophene Anti septic L4 [toxic?] ?
Histamine Diagnostic agent L3
Hydralazine Anti hypertensive L2 [hypotension?] Compatible
Hydrochloor-thiazide Diuretic L2 [reduces milk production?] Compatible
Hydrocortison [local] Steroid L2 ?
Hydromorphone Analgesic L3 [sedative?] ?
Hydroxychloroquine Anti rheumatic and -malaria L2 Compatible
Hydroxizine Anti histamine L1 [sedative?] ?
Hyoscyamine Anti cholinergic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
I-radioactive L4 Temporary stop [sometimes complete]
Ibuprofen Analgesic L1 Compatible
Imipenem Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Imipramine Anti depressant L2 [sedation? dry mouth?] Concern?
Indapamide Diuretic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Indomethacine NSAID L3 Compatible
Infliximab Anti rheumatic L2 ?
Insuline Anti diabetes L1 ?
Ipratropium Bromide Bronchodilator L2 ?
Iron Metal supplement L1 ?
Isoniazide Anti tuberculose L3 [hepatitis? weakness? spitting?] Compatible
Isoproterenol Bronchodilator L2 ?
Isosorbide Opens veins L3 ?
Isotretinion Vitamin A derivate L5 [teratogen] ?
Isradipine Anti hypertension L3 [low blood pressure? sleepiness? low heartbeat?] ?
Itrakonazol Anti fungal L2 ?
Ivermectin Anti parasitic L3 Compatible
Kalium Iodide Anti thyroid gland L4 ?
Kanamicine Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Kava-kava Sleeping pill L5 ?
Ketoconazol Anti fungal L2 Compatible
Ketoprofen [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] Pain killer L3 ?
Ketorolac Analgesic L2 Compatible
Kombucha tea Herbal tea L5 ?
Labetalol Anti hypertension L2 Compatible
Lamivudine Anti viral L2 ?
Lamotrigine Anti epileptic L3 [plasma levels 30% of maternal, no adverse effects noted] Concern?
Lansoprasole Reduces gastric acid production L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Latanoprost Against glaucoma L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Lead L5 ?
Leflunomide Reduces infections L4 [malignancy-risk?] ?
Lepirudin Anti coagulant L2 ?
Letrozole Reduces oestrogen synthesis L4 ?
Leuprolide acetate GRH analog L5 [reduces milk production] ?
Levalbuterol Bronchodilatation L2 ?
Levetiracetam Anti-epileptic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Levobunolol Anti glaucoma L3 [none reported via milk, observe for lethargy and apneu?] ?
Levocabastine Used for itch L2 ?
Levocarnitine Diet supplement L3 [no data]
Levodopa Anti Parkinson L4 [reduces milk production] ?
Levofloxacin Antibiotic L3 ? Candida?
Levonorgestrel Anti conceptive L2 Compatible
Levothyroxine Thyroid gland hormone L1 Compatible
Lidocaine Anesthetic L2 Compatible
Lincomicine Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Lindane Anti schurft L4 [damages nervous system] ?
Linezolid Antibiotic L3 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Liothyronine Thyroid gland hormone L2 ?
Lisinopril Anti hypertensive L3 [none reported via milk, weakness? hypo tension?] ?
Lithium Anti manic depression L4 [effects heart rhythm, weakness?, control lithium levels] Caution
L-Methylfolate Folic acid metabolite L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Lomefloxacin Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] ? Candida?
Loperamide Anti diarrhea L2 Compatible
Loracarbef Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Loratidine Anti histamine L1 Compatible
Lorazepam Anti fear L3 [none reported via milk, observe for sleepiness] Concern?
Lormetazepam Sedative L3 [none reported via milk, milk levels extremely low]
Losartan Anti hypertensive L3 ?
Lovastatin Reduces cholesterol L3 [cholesterol is important!] ? Better discontinue during breast feeding
Loxapine Tranquillizer L4 ?
LSD Hallucinator L5 ?
Lyme disease vaccine Vaccine L2 ?
Magnesium hydroxide Laxative L1 ?
Magnesiumsulfate Anti epileptic and laxative L1 Compatible
Mannitol Diuretic L3
[temporary less milk production?]
Maprotiline Anti depressive L3 ?
Marcoumar Anti coagulant L2 Compatible see Coumarin derivates
Mebendazole Anti parasitic L3 [reduces milk production?] ?
Meclizine Anti travel sickness L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Hormone L1
[L4 during the first three days after birth]
Mefloquine Anti malaria L2 ?
Melatonine Hormone L3 ?
Meloxicam Reduces infections L3 ?
Meningococcen vaccin Vaccine L1 ?
Menotropine Hormone L3 [reduces milk production?] ?
Meperidine [=Pethidine] Analgesic L2
[L3 when used shortly after birth, sedative]
Compatible Adverse effects increases with anti depressive medication
Mepindolol sulfate Bèta blocker L2 ?
Mepivacaine Local pain killer L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Meprobamate Anti fear L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Mercaptopurine Anti cancer L3 ?
Mercury Mercury L5 ? Caution with removing amalgams
Meropenem Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] ? Candida?
Mesalamine Slows thyroid gland L3 [diarrhea?] Caution
Mesoridazine Anti psychoticum L4 [sedative!] Concern?
Metaxalon Muscle relaxant L3 ?
Metformin Anti diabetic L1 ?
Methacholine Broncho constriction L3 ?
Methadon Narcotic analgesic L3 Compatible
Methicilline Antibiotic L3 ? Candida?
Methimazol Slows thyroid gland L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Methocarbamol Muscle relaxant L3 ?
Methohexital Anesthetic L3 [none reported via milk adverse effects unlikely] Compatible
Methotrexate Anti cancer L3 for acute use
[L5 chronic use]
Methscopolamine Against cramps L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Methyldopa Anti hypertension L2 Compatible
Methylergonovine Vasoconstrictor L2
[L4 chronic use]
Methylphenidate Anti ADHD L3 [none reported via milk, observe for insomnia and weight?] ?
Methylprednisolon Corticosteroid L2 [except for long term high dosage] Compatible
Metoclopramide Prolactin stimulation L2 Concern?
Metoprolol Beta blocker L3 [none reported via milk, observe for hypo tension? low heart activity?] Compatible
Metronidazole Antibiotic L2 [possible less drinking] Concern? Metallic flavor
Mexiletine Anti arrhythmic L2 Compatible
Miconazol Anti fungal L2 ?
Midazolam Sleeping pill L3 [none reported via milk] Concern?
Midodrine Anti hypotensive L3 [none reported via milk, hypertension? insomnia?] ?
Mifepristone Anti progesteron L3 [increases milk production] ?
Miglitol Anti diabetic L2 ?
Minocycline Antibiotic L3
[L4 by chronic use, changes teeth color and reduces bone grow]
? Candida?
Minoxidil Anti hypertension L2 Compatible
Mirtazapine Anti depressive L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Misoprostol Prostaglandine L3 [none reported via milk, diarrhea? cramps?] ?
Mitoxantrone Anti MS L5 ?
Mivacurium Blocks muscle activity L2 ?
Moclobemide Anti depressive L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Modafinil Keeps awake L4 [reduces milk production?] ?
Mometason Corticosteroid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Montelukast Anti astma L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Morfine Painkiller L3 [none reported via milk, maybe sedative by high dosages?] Compatible
Moxifloxacin Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Mupirocin Anti bacterial crème L1 ?
Mycophenolate Reduces immunity L4 ?
Nabumeton Anti-inflammatory L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Nadolol Anti hypertensive L4 [lots goes in mothers milk] Compatible
Nafcilline Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Nalbuphine Analgesic L2 ?
Nalidixine zuur Anti septic L3 [anemia?] Compatible
Naloxon Antagonist for morphine L3 ?
Naltrexone Narcotic antagonist L1
Naproxen Analgesic L3
[L4 by chronic use]
Naratriptan Anti migraine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Natalizumab Anti MS L3 [no data available] ?
Nebivolol Beta blocker L3 [neonatal hypo glycemia reported]
Nedocromil Anti asthmatic L2 ?
Nefazodone Anti depressive L4 [drowsiness, weakness, reduces growth] ?
Netilmicine Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk, diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Nevirapine Anti HIV L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Nicardipine Anti hypertension L2 ?
Nicotine [chewing gum etc.] Against smoking L2 ?
Nicotinezuur Vitamin B3 L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Nifedipine Anti hypertensive L2 Compatible
Nimodipine Anti hypertensive L2 ?
Nisoldipine Anti hypertensive L3 [none reported via milk, hypotension? sedative?] ?
Nitazoxanide Anti parasites L3 [no data available] ?
Nitrazepam Sleeping pill L2 [short term] [sedation?] ?
Nitrendipine Anti hypertensive L2 ?
Nitrofurantoine Antibiotic L2 [don’t use in babies with G6PD deficiency or younger than one month] Compatible Candida?
Nitroglycerine Opens veins L4 [none reported via milk, methemo-
Nitroprusside Hypotensive L4 ?
Nitrous oxide Anesthetic gas L3 [none reported via milk]
Nizatidine Reduces gastric acid L2 ?
Norethindrone Anti conceptive L1 ?
Norethynodrel Anti conceptive L2 [none reported via milk, may reduce milk production?] ?
Norfloxacin Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] ? Candida?
Nortriptyline Anti depressive L2 Concern?
Nystatine Antifungal L1 ?
Ofloxacine Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Olanzapine Anti psychotic L2 ?
Olmesartan Anti hypertension L3 [older babies] ?
Olopatadine Local antihistamine L2 ?
Olsalazine Anti inflammatory L3 [none reported via milk, in long term use diarrhea and cramps?] ?
Omeprazol Reduces gastric acid L2 ?
Ondansetron Anti nausea L2 ?
Orlistat Anti obesity L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Orphenadrine citrate Muscle relaxant L3 ?
Oseltamivir Anti-influenza L2 ?
Oxaprozine Analgesic L3 ?
Oxazepam Anti fear L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Oxcarbazepine Anti epileptic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Oxybutynine Anti cramps L3 [less milk production?] ?
Oxycodone Analgesic L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Oxytocine Stimulates delivery and TSR L2 ?
Paclitaxel Anti cancer L5 ?
Palonosetron Anti emetic L3 [no data available] ?
Pamidronate Bone resorption inhibitor L2 ?
Pantoprazol Reduces gastric acid L1 ?
Paracetamol Analgesic L1 Compatible
Paromomycin amoebicide L3 [no data available]
Paroxetine Anti depressive L2 [none reported via milk in numerous studies] Concern?
Penciclovir Antiviral L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Penicillamine For arthritis L4 ?
Penicilline G Antibiotic L1 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Pentazocine Analgesic L3 ?
Pentobarbital Hypnotic L3 [none reported via milk, sedation?] ?
Pentosal Polysulfate Analgesic L2 ?
Pentoxifylline Reduces blood viscosity L2 ?
Permethrin Insecticide L2 ?
Perphenasine Anti psychotic L3 [none reported via milk, sedation?] Concern?
Phenazopyridine Pain killer L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Phencyclidine Hallucinogen L5 Cessation
Phenobarbital Anti-epileptic L3 [sedation? withdrawal?] Caution
Phentermine Reduces appetite L4 [reduces drinking?] ?
Phenylephrine Constricts blood vessels L3 [None reported via milk] ?
Phenyl-propanolamine Anorexiant L2 [insomnia?]
Phenytoine Anti epileptic L2 Compatible
Pilocarpine Hypotensive L3 [none reported via milk, cramp, diarrhea?] ?
Pimecrolimus For dermatitis L2 (L4 on the nipple) ?
Pimozide Tranquillizer L4 ?
Pioglitazon Anti diabetic L3 [no data available] ?
Piperacillin Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Pirbuterol acetate Broncho-
L2 [irritation? tremors?] ?
Piroxicam Analgesic L2 Compatible
Podofilotoxine Anti genital warts L3 [caution; after use, wait 4 hours before feeding] ?
Polio vaccine Vaccine L2 ?
Laxans L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Polymixine B sulfate Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Potassium Iodide Anti thyroid L4 ?
Povidon iodine Anti septic L4 [reduces thryoid-
gland function when used in large amounts?]
Pramipexol Anti Parkinson L4 [reduces milk production] ?
Pramlintide acetate Anti diabetic L3 [first week] [none reported via milk]
L2 [following weeks, unlikely to enter milk]
Pravastatin Reduces cholesterol L3 [cholesterol is important!] ? Better not to use during breast feeding
Prazepam Anti fear L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] Concern?
Praziquantel Anti worms L2 ?
Prazosin Anti hypertension L4 ?
Prednicarbate Corticosteroid crème L3 [not on nipple] [none reported via milk] ?
Prednison Corticosteroid L2 Compatible
Primaquine fosfate Anti malaria L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Primidone Anti epileptic L3 [sedative in neonatal period?] Caution
Procainamide Anti arythmicum L3 [hypo tension? liver function?] Compatible
Procaine Anesthetic L3 ?
Reduces nausea L3 [none reported via milk, apnea?] ?
Progesteron Hormone L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely, maybe less milk production in the first weeks] Compatible
Promethazine Anti histaminic L2 [none reported via milk, sedative? apnea?] ?
Propafenon Anti arythmicum L2 ?
Propofol Sedative L2 ?
Propoxyphene Analgesic L2 Compatible
Propranolol Beta blocker L2 [do not use in asthmatic children] Compatible
Propylthiouracil Anti thyroid L2 Compatible
Pseudo ephidrine Decongestant L3 [by acute usage]
L4 [by chronicle use, reduces milk production]
Pyrantel Anti worms L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Pyrazinamide Anti tubercular L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Pyridostigmine Muscle stimulant L2 Compatible
Pyridoxine Vitamin B 6 L2
L4 in high dosage
Pyrimethamine Anti malaria, folium acid antagonist L3 [carcinogen?] Compatible
Quazepam Sedative L2 Concern?
Quetiapine fumarate Anti psychoticum L2 ?
Quinacrine Anti malaria L4 [by long term use] ?
Quinapril Anti
L4 [in first days post partum]
Quinidine Anti arythmicum L2 [none reported via milk, liver function?] Compatible
Quinine Anti malaria L2 Compatible
Quinupristin Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] ? Candida?
Rabeprazol Reduces gastric acid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Rabies vaccine Vaccine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Ramelteon Hypnotic L3 [no data available] ?
Ramipril Anti hypertensive L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Ranitidine Reduces heartburn L2 ?
Remifentanil Analgesic L3 [none reported via milk, not absorbed] ?
Repaglinide Anti diabeticum L4 [hypo glycemic] ?
Reserpine Anti hypertensive L4 ?
Retapamulin Anti bacterial L3 [no data available, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Ribavirin Antiviral L4 ?
Riboflavin Vitamin B2 L1 Compatible
Rifampicine Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Rifaximin Antibiotic L3 [adverse effects unlikely] ? Candida?
Rimantadine Anti viral L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Risedronate For bone resorption L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Risperidon Anti psychotic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Ritodrine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Rizatriptan Anti migraine L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Rofecoxib Analgesic L2 [cramps?] ?
Ropinirole Stimulates dopamine, against restless legs L4 [reduces milk production!] ?
Ropivacaine Local anesthetic L2 ?
Rosiglitazon Anti diabetic L3 [no data available] ?
Rosuvastin Calcium Reduces cholesterol L3 [no data available, cholesterol is important] ? Better not use during breast feeding
Rotigotine Dopamine agonist L4 [reduces milk production?] ?
Rubella vaccine Vaccine L2 [light signs of rubella?] ?
Saccharine Sweetener L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Sage Herb L4 [dry mouth, infected gums?] ?
Salicylic acid, topical Anti-acne L3 [no data available] ?
Saline laxatives Laxative L2 Compatible
Salmeterol Bronchodilatation L2 ?
Salsalate NSAID L4 [Reye syndrome?]
Scopolamine Anti cholinergicum L3 [none reported via milk, sedative? dry mouth?] ?
Secobarbital Sedativum L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] Compatible
Selegiline MAO-inhibitor L4 ?
Selenium sulfide Local antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk, do not apply direct on nipple] ?
Senna laxatives Laxative L3 [thin bowel movements? no drug detected in milk] Compatible
Sertraline Anti depressive L2 Concern?
Sevoflurane Anesthetic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Sibutramine Reduces appetite L4 ?
Silicone implants Mammoplasty L3 ?
Silver Sulfadiazine Local antibiotic L3 ?
Simvastatine Reduces cholesterol L3 [cholesterol is important!] ? Better not to use during breast feeding
Sincalide For cholecystography L3 [do not feed first two hours after use] ?
Sintrom Anti coagulant L2 Compatible see Coumarin derivates
Sirolimus Immune suppressant L4 [reduces milk production?] ?
Sitagliptin Phosphate Anti diabetic L3 [no data available]
Smallpox Vaccine Vaccine L4 ?
Sodium Oxybate CNS depressant L3 [no data available, sedative?] ?
Solifenacin succinate For bladder overactivity L4 [sedation? dry mouth?] ?
Somatropine Growth hormone L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely] ?
Sotalol Anti hypertensive L3 [none reported via milk, sedative? hypo tension?] Compatible
Spironolacton Diuretic L2 Compatible
St John’s Wort [Sint Jans kruid] Anti depressive L2 ?
Streptomycine Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible Candida?
Strontium89 chloride Radioactive L5 ?
Succimer Against lead poisoning L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Sucralfate Reduces stomach ulcers L2 ?
Sulconazol Nitrate Anti fungal L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Sulfamethoxazol Antibiotic L3 [none reported via milk, caution in jaundices babies and low G6PD] ? Candida?
Sulfasalazine Anti inflammatory L3 [diarrhea?] Caution
Sulfisoxazol Antibiotic L2 [caution by jaundices babies and low G6PD] Compatible Candida?
Sulpiride Anti depressive L2 ?
Sumatriptan succinate Anti migraine L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Tacrolimus Immune-suppressant L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Tamoxifen Anti cancer L5 ?
Tazaroteen Anti psoriatic L3 [none reported via milk, caution if more than 20 % of skin requires usage] ?
Tea tree oil Anti fungal L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Technetium 99m Radioactive L4 Stop breast feeding temporarily!
Tegaserod maleate Anti IBS L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Telbivudine Anti hepatitis B L4 ?
Telithromycine Antibiotic L3 [no data available] ? Candida?
Telmisartan Anti hypertension L3 [none reported via milk]
L4 [in neonatal period]
Temazepam Sleeping pill L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] Concern?
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Anti retroviral L3 [no data available] ?
Terazosin HCL Anti hypertensive L4 ?
Terbinafine Anti fungal L2 ?
Terbutaline Broncho dilatation L2 Compatible
Terconazol Anti fungus L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Tetracycline Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Thallium 201 Radioactive L3 Stop breast feeding for 24-48 hours ?
Theofylline Broncho dilatation L3 [none reported via milk, irritation? insomnia?] Compatible
Thiabendazol Anti parasitic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Thiopental sodium Anesthetic L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Thioridazine Anti psychotic L4 [neonatal apnea common] ?
Thiotixeen Anti psychotic L4 [sedative? seizures?] ?
Thyroid scan Radiographic scan L4 [possible thyroid suppression] ?
Thyrotropine Stimulates thyroid gland L1 ?
Tiagabine Anti convulsant L3 [none reported via milk, sleepiness?] ?
Ticarcilline Antibiotic L1 Compatible Candida?
Ticlopidine Anti coagulant L4 ?
Tigecycline Antibiotic L3 [tooth dicoloration?] ?
Timolol Anti-hypertensive L2 Compatible
Tinidazole Antibiotic L2 ? Candida?
Tinzaparin sodium Anti coagulant L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Tizanidine Muscle relaxant L4 ?
Tobramycin Antibiotic L3 [diarrhea?] ? Candida?
Tocainide Anti arythmicum L4 ?
Tolbutamide Anti diabeticum L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Tolmetin sodium Analgesic L3 [none reported via milk] Compatible
Tolterodine Reduces urine incontinence L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Topiramate Anti epileptic L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Torsemide Diuretic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Tramadol HCL Analgesic L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Trastuzumab Anti cancer L4 ?
Trazodone Anti depressant L2 Concern?
Tretinoine Reduces acne L3 [when used locally]
L4 [when used orally]
Triamcinolon Corticosteroid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Triamterene Diuretic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Triazolam Sleeping pill L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Trimeprazine Reduces itch L3 [none reported via milk, sedative?] ?
Tri metho-
Reduces vomiting L4 ?
Trimethoprim Antibiotic L2 Compatible Candida?
Tripelennamine Anti histamine L4 [sedative? sleep apnea?] ?
Triprolidine Anti histamine L1 [sedative?] Compatible
Triptorelin pamoate LHRH analog L3 [none reported via milk, adverse effects unlikely]
Tropicamide Ophthalmic agent L3 [wait 3-4 hours before feeding] ?
Tropisetron Reduces vomiting L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Trovafloxacin Antibiotic L4 ? Candida?
Tuberculose skin test L2 ?
Typhoid vaccine Vaccine L3 [none reported via milk, killed species suggested] ?
Ursodiol Gal acid L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Valacyclovir Anti viral L1 ?
Valerian Herb L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Valganciclovir Anti viral L3 [no data available] ?
Valproic acid Anti epileptic L2 ?
Valsartan Anti hypertension L3 ?
Vancomicine Antibiotic L1 ? Candida?
Varencline Smoking cessation L4 ?
Varicella vaccine Vaccine L2
L5 In immuno compromised children
Varicella zoster infection Chickenpox L4 [no breast feeding unless guarded with VZIG] ?
Vasopressin Anti diuretic L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Venlafaxine Anti depressive L3 [no data available] ?
Verapamil Anti hypertension L2 Compatible
Verteporfin For macula degeneration L3 [interrupt breast feeding for 24 hours]
Vigabatrin Anti convulsant L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Vitamin A Vitamin A L3 [when not higher than 5000 IU/day] ?
Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 L1 Compatible
Vitamin D Vitamin D L2 Compatible
Vitamin E Vitamin E L2 [when not applied on nipple] ?
Warfarine Anti coagulant L2 Compatible
Yellow fever vaccine Vaccine L3 [if older than 6 months]
L4 [if younger than 6 months]
[none reported via milk]
Zafirlukast Anti astma L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Zaleplon Sleeping pill L2 ?
Zanamivir Anti viral L3 [no data available] ?
Zidovudine Anti viral L3 [high blood levels in babies?] ?
Zink salts Crèmes etc. L2 ?
Ziprasidone Anti psychotic L4 ?
Zolmitriptan Anti migraine L3 [none reported via milk] ?
Zolpidem tartrate Sleeping pill L3 [poor feeding? sleepiness?] Compatible
Zonisamide Anti convulsive L5 [very high blood levels!] ?
Zopiclone Sleeping pill L2 ?
Zuclopenthixol Anti psychotic L3 [none reported via milk]



Literature and further reading


  • This list may be copied and distributed without further permission as long as the sources [URL] are mentioned, and only when it is under no circumstances used violating the WHO-code of substitutes for breast milk.


© Erica Post, peadiatrician
© Kleintjesconsult | Kenniscentrum Borstvoeding – Stefan Kleintjes, nutritionist

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